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Basa de Dunya

Grammar

Nouns

The base form of the noun is the singular. Plurals can be formed by appending -es, or, if the base form ends in a vowel or a nasal consonant, -s.

Adjectives

Adjectives come before the noun they modify.

Novel adjectives can be formed by adding the suffix -ni (from the Russian ный -nyy) to a root word.

Verbs

The default tense for a verb is the present. Tense can be changed by adding a particle or particles before the verb:

  • Default: Present
  • bi: Continuous
  • wa: Past tense
  • sa: Future tense

The imperative mood usually needs no special marking, although it may come across as impolite. This can be avoided by framing it as a question in the future, as the English do it:

Funga dor!
/ˈfuŋgä dor/
close door
Close the door!
Kya tu sa funga dor?
/kʰjä tʰu sä ˈfuŋgä dor/
Q 2s fut close door
Would you close the door?

For more abstract subjunctives, you might want to use the particle ke “that” — think the English construction “would that i…”.

Ke Ila baca Raja!
/kʰe ilä bät͡ʃä räd͡ʒä/
that god save monarch
God save the Queen!

Syntax

Word order

Basa de Dunya uses the subject, verb, object word order in sentences.

Mi it tufaha·s.
/mi itʰ tʰuˈfähäs/
1s eat apple-PL
I eat apples.